Chapter 6: The Treaty of Hudaibiyah
Part 4: In the last chapter 4, we covered the Hijrah, the battles of Badr, Uhud and Khandaq – Trench. In this chapter, we are going to look into the Treaty of Hudaibiyah and the Conquest of Mecca.
The Treaty of Hudaibiyah
In 628 A.D, Muhammad PBUH signed a treaty with the Meccans when he was on his journey to Mecca for the lesser pilgrimage. The Prophet Muhammad – PBUH discussed with the Meccans to enter into peace treaty of 10 years. The truce was called the Treaty of Hudaibiyah.
In the treaty of Hudaibiyah the following was agreed between the Prophet Muhammad – PBUH and the Suhayl Ibn Amr:
- The Muslims were not allowed to perform pilgrimage that year – 6th year of the Hijrah; however, they were permitted to come next year for pilgrimage.
- Both parties also promised that they would not fight or attack each other for 10 years and signed a truce of peace.
- The Meccans also stated that if someone from the Quraysh embraced Islam or went to Muhammad – PBUH without the consent of the guardians, Muhammad PBUH had to send him back to the Quraysh, however, if someone from Muhammad – PBUH went to the Quraysh with any permission for his or her guardian, it was allowed and would not be sent back to the Prophet – PBUH .
Even though, the Treaty was in favour of the Meccans, Muhammad – PBUH accepted the terms and signed it. The Muslims and the companions were disappointed, however, Muhammad – PBUH promised them that victory has been predicted by Allah and that they should be patient.
The Conquest of Mecca
A year after the Treaty of Hudaibiyah was sealed, Muhammad – PBUH and his followers – 2000 men came back to Mecca to accomplish their pilgrimage. The Meccans were really surprised and impressed to see the behaviour and lifestyles of the Muslims. In fact this led to massive further conversion to Islam.
After two years of the Treaty of Hudaibiyah, the Quraysh breached the treaty of Hudaibiyah by attacking one of the Muslim’s Tribe. Muhammad – PBUH and his followers – 10,000 men, set out to Mecca in the eighth of the Hijrah – 630 A.D to conquer Mecca. This victory was predicted by Allah already.
On his way to Mecca, Muhammad – PBUH met with his uncle Al- Abbaas and he accepted Islam at the hands of the Holy Prophet Muhammad – PBUH. Shortly after the conversion of Al Abbaas, Abu Sufiyan, leader of the Quraysh, came to the tent of the Holy Prophet – PBUH and he accepted Islam. This was a great victory for Islam.
The Prophet Muhammad – PBUH entered Mecca with the 10,000 followers without any bloodshed despite there was a few resistances from some tribes.
Upon the conquest of Mecca, Muhammad – PBUH forgave all the Meccans and declared general amnesty to all of them. In fact, after Muhammad – PBUH performed the tawaaf – Circumbulation of the Kaaba, he asked for the key of the Kaaba and ordered for all the 360 idols at the Kaaba to be destroyed and he publicly declared that truth had prevailed over falsehood and victory has been granted to the Muslims by Allah. The holy Kaaba was cleaned and washed and Bilal was ordered by Muhammad – PBUH to give Azaan. On hearing the Azaan – the call to prayer, all the people came to the Kaaba and the Muslims rejoiced and they finally could meet their families after many years of sacrifices.
The conquest of Mecca had a huge impact on Islam as many people or almost the entire Arabia saw the beauty of Islam through the amnesty and they decided to convert to Islam and chose Islam as their way of life.
In Part 5, Chapter 6, we will cover the Farewell Address of the Holy Prophet -PBUH and his death as well.