Chapter 5: The Hijrah of the Muslims and the Holy Battles
Part 3: In the last chapter 4, we covered how Muhammad – Pbuh faced opposition in Mecca, and the Immigration to Abyssinia and also the pledges of Al- Aquaabah. In Part 3, we will cover the Hijrah, the battles of Badr, Uhud and Khandaq – Trench.
The Hijrah- Migration to Yathrib
Muhammad – Pbuh and his companions entered Yathrib in 622 A.C. The people of Yathrib welcomed the Prophet Muhammad – Pbuh and the Muslims pompously. The Prophet Muhammad – Pbuh gave the people of Yathrib the title of Al – Ansars – the helpers and the Muslims immigrants as the Muhajireen.
When the Muslims emigrated to Yathrib, they left everything behind them and travelled to Yathrib with only Islam in their hearts. Therefore, the Ansars shared half of their belongings and their life saving earnings with the Muhajireen. They provided shelters, food, clothes and so many other things to the Muhajireen.
Muhammad- Pbuh and his Muslims settled down in Yathrib and later the name of the city of Yathrib was changed to Medina. During the first year of the Hijrah, the Jews in Yathrib tried to attack the Muslims as they feared that Islam was taking over Judaism but the Muslims overcame their threats and attacks too with the help and support of the Ansars. Later on the Prophet Muhammad – Pbuh built the first mosque known as the Quba Mosque. Later in the same year, Prophet Muhammad – Pbuh called the Muslims who migrated to Abyssinia to come and join the Muhajireen in Yathrib.
In the meanwhile, the Meccans became aware of the Muslims Hijrah and their progresses in spreading Islam. They tried several times to hurt the Muslims directly or indirectly. The Prophet – Pbuh in the meantime was preparing the Muslims army as he knew that sooner or later the Meccans will attack the Muslims unexpectedly.
The Battle of Badr
In 625, the third year of the Hijrah, the first religious battle was proclaimed. It was in the southwest of Medina known as Badr. The Muslims’ army consisted of 600 warriors with restricted arms and they had only swords to fight the Meccans. On the other hand, the Meccan’s army were three times the size of the Muslims’ army. The Meccan’s army was well equipped with arms.
Nevertheless, despite the Muslims’ army was small and had limited arms, they defeated the Meccans and they even returned back to Yathrib with prisoners. The prisoners were all Meccans and they came from the same tribe of the Prophet Muhammad- Pbuh. The prisoners were well treated by the Muslims in Yathrib. It was the first victory for the Muslims and a big blow for the Meccans and they lost many of the warriors and suffered a big loss as well as their prestige. This victory was given by Allah to the Muslims.
The Battle of Uhud.
The Meccans could not recover from their defeats from the Battle of Badr. Abu Sufiyan, the leader of the Meccans decided to avenge the deaths of their kin and the defeat against the Muslims in order to regain their reputation and prestige which they lost in the Battle of Badr. In fact, whilst the Prophet Muhammad – Pbuh was strengthening and establishing Islam in Yathrib and in the surrounding areas, the Meccans marched towards Uhud to fight the Muslims. The Meccan’s army was this time three times bigger than the last one in Badr. They were extremely well prepared and took the Muslims’ army by surprise.
Muhammad – Pbuh quickly prepared the Muslims’ warriors and marched towards Uhud to fight the Meccans. It was a very fierce battle and it is reported that the Prophet Muhammad – Pbuh himself got wounded in this battle of Uhud.
Furthermore, sadly, the uncle of Muhammad- Pbuh, Hamza, lost his life in this battle. Despite the losses, Muhammad – Pbuh managed to save his army. The Meccans were satisfied with the outcomes of the Battle of Uhud and they marched back to Mecca feeling satisfied and avenged.
The Battle of Khandaq – Trench
The battle of Uhud left the Muslims with a lot of sadness and grief and the Prophet Muhammad – Pbuh for two years worked hard in strengthening the Muslim’s Army, preparing for the next religious battle.
Two years later, after the battle of Uhud, the Meccans marched towards Yathrib to attack the Muslims with the intention of destroying the Muslims for good. The Quraysh had this time a larger and bigger army with ten thousand warriors. They also had the support of many tribes and they were extremely much better equipped and armed compared to the Muslims.
In fact, when Muhammad – Pbuh came to know about the powerful army of the Meccans, he was worried and he was guided by Allah to use tactics in order to defeat the Meccans. Therefore, in order to protect the Muslims and the warriors, Muhammad – Pbuh ordered the Muhajireen and Ansars to dig trenches, where the warriors will be positions to attack the Meccans and the Trenches will act as shield for the Muslims’ warriors. In this battle Allah supported the Muslims, and they won the battle against the Meccans.
They were driven away defeated once again. It was a great victory for the Muslims and the last attempt of the Quraysh to destroy the Muslims in Yathrib.
In the sixth year of Hijrah, Muhammad – Pbuh wanted to perform the lesser pilgrimage to the Kaabah. Muhammad – Pbuh made the journey with some Muslims to Mecca in hope to perform the Umrah, but they Meccans did not allow him and the Muslims. However, this will lead to a ten year peace truce between the Muslims and Meccans.
In part four, we will look into the Treaty of Hudaibiyah and Conquest of Mecca.